People who often nap have a greater chance of developing high blood pressure and having a stroke, a large new study has found.一项最新的大规模研究发现,经常小憩的人患高血压和中风风险更高。

"This may be because, although taking a nap itself is not harmful, many people who take naps may do so because of poor sleep at night. Poor sleep at night is associated with poorer health, and naps are not enough to make up for that," said clinical psychologist Michael Grandner in a statement. Grandner directs the Behavioral Sleep Medicine Clinic at the Banner-University Medical Center in Tucson, Arizona, and was not involved in the study.临床心理学家迈克尔·格兰德纳声称:“这可能是因为,尽管小憩本身并没有危害,但许多人小憩可能是因为夜间睡眠不佳。夜间睡眠不佳往往与健康状况较差有关,小憩不足以改善健康状况。”格兰德纳是亚利桑那州图森市班纳大学医学中心行为睡眠医学诊所主任,他没有参与这项研究。

Study participants who typically napped during the day were 12% more likely to develop high blood pressure over time and were 24% more likely to have a stroke compared with people who never napped.与从不小睡的人相比,白天经常小睡的人随着时间的推移患高血压的可能性增加12%,中风的可能性增加24%。

If the person was younger than age 60, napping most days raised the risk of developing high blood pressure by 20% compared with people who never or rarely nap, according to the study published Monday in Hypertension, an American Heart Association journal. The AHA recently added sleep duration as one of its eight essential metrics to optimal heart and brain health.7月25日发表在美国心脏协会杂志《高血压》上的一项研究称,在60岁以下人群中,经常小憩者患高血压的风险比从不小憩或很少小憩的人增加20%。美国心脏协会最近新增睡眠时间作为最佳心脑健康的八个基本指标之一。

The results held true even after researchers excluded people at high risk for hypertension, such as those with type 2 diabetes, existing high blood pressure, high cholesterol, sleep disorders and who did night-shift work.即使研究人员排除了高血压高危人群,如患2型糖尿病、高血压、高胆固醇、睡眠障碍和夜班工作的人群,研究结论仍然成立。

"The results demonstrate that napping increases the incidence of hypertension and stroke, after adjusting or considering many variables known to be associated with risk for cardiovascular disease and stroke," said Dr. Phyllis Zee, director of the Center for Circadian and Sleep Medicine at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago.位于芝加哥的西北大学范伯格医学院昼夜节律和睡眠医学中心主任菲利斯·泽伊博士称:“研究结果表明,在调整或考虑了许多已知与心血管疾病和中风风险相关的变量后,小睡会增加高血压和中风的发病率。”

"From a clinical standpoint, I think it highlights the importance for health care providers to routinely ask patients about napping and excessive daytime sleepiness and evaluate for other contributing conditions to potentially modify the risk for cardiovascular disease," said Zee, who was not involved in the study.泽伊称:“从临床角度来看,我认为这说明医疗服务提供者有必要定期询问患者小憩和白天过度嗜睡的情况,并评估其他可能影响心血管疾病患病风险的因素。”

The study used data from 360,000 participants who had given information on their napping habits to the UK Biobank, a large biomedical database and research resource that followed UK residents from 2006 to 2010.该研究数据来自36万名研究对象,他们向英国生物银行提供了关于自己小憩习惯的信息。英国生物银行是一家大型生物医学数据库和研究资源库,从2006年到2010年对英国居民进行追踪研究。

People in the UK study provided blood, urine and saliva samples on a regular basis, and answered questions on napping four times over the four year study. However, the study only collected nap frequency, not duration, and relied on self-reports of napping, a limitation due to imperfect recall.在这项为期四年的研究中,研究对象定期提供血液、尿液和唾液样本,并回答了四次关于小憩的问题。然而,该研究只收集了小憩频率,而未关注睡眠持续时间,并仅凭研究对象自述,这种方式存在局限性,因为可能出现记忆偏差。

"They didn't define what a nap should be. If you're going to be sleeping for an hour, two hours, for example, that's not really a nap," said sleep specialist Dr. Raj Dasgupta, an associate professor of clinical medicine at the Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California.南加州大学凯克医学中心临床医学副教授、睡眠专家拉吉·达斯古塔博士称:“他们没有定义什么是小憩。例如,如果你要睡一两个小时,那就不是真正的小憩。”

"A refreshing power nap that's 15 to 20 minutes around noon to 2 pm is 100% the way to go if you're sleep deprived," said Dasgupta, who was not involved in the study. "If you have chronic insomnia we don't encourage napping because it takes away the drive to sleep at night."达斯古塔称:“如果你睡眠不足,那么在中午到下午2点左右小睡15到20分钟,提个神是完全可以的。如果你患有慢性失眠症,我们不鼓励你小睡,因为这么做会让你晚上失去入睡的动力。”达斯古塔没有参与这项研究。

Most of the people in the study who took regular naps smoked cigarettes, drank daily, snored, had insomnia and reported being an evening person.在研究中,经常小睡的大多数人吸烟、每天喝酒、打鼾、失眠,并且声称自己是夜猫子。

Many of these factors could impact a person's quality and quantity of slumber, Dasgupta said. Poor sleep causes "excessive daytime fatigue which can result in excessive napping during the day," he said.达斯古塔称,以上许多因素可能会影响睡眠质量和时间,睡眠不足会导致“白天过度疲劳,导致白天嗜睡”。

"I do believe napping is a warning sign of an underlying sleep disorder in certain individuals," he added. "Sleep disorders are linked to an increase in stress and weight regulation hormones which can lead to obesity, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes -- all risk factors for heart disease."达斯古塔还表示:“我确实认为,小睡是某些人可能存在睡眠障碍的警告信号。睡眠障碍与压力和体重调节激素的增加有关,这些激素可能导致肥胖、高血压、2型糖尿病——所有这些都是心脏病的风险因素。”